Salix candida
 
Hoary Willow

Male Catkin, Side A  

Fen at Junction of Highways #47 and #247
29-April-2007

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Candida: Answers to key questions in Conifers & Catkin-Bearing Trees and Shrubs of Saskatchewan, Fascicle 5, Flora of Saskatchewan by Anna Leighton leading to this species. The answers are in the order you would normally work through the key
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Catkins usually flowering as leaves emerge, sometimes just before leaves emerge or throughout the season, subtended by small green leaves of the flowering branchlet that supports them.  NOT  [Catkins usually flowering before leaves emerge, borne directly on bare branches (sessile) and subtended by 1 - 3 short, greenish or brownish, caducous bract-like leaves]

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Low to tall shrubs or trees; not confined to subarctic regions.  NOT [Dwarf shrubs <= 0.15 m (15 cm) tall; subarctic regions]

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Shrubs, usually with several stems; ovaries glabrous or hairy.   NOT  [Trees, with a single trunk, or with several trunks of tree stature; ovaries glabrous]

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NOT [Plants flowering as leaves emerge or throughout the season, often bearing branched catkins; leaf blades linear or strap-shaped, 9 14 24 times longer than wide, up to 11 mm wide with margins remotely spinulose-serrulate, the teeth widely spaced; hairs on leaves white, ferruginous hairs lacking; plants forming extensive colonies by root shoots]

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Petioles without glandular dots or lobes at distal end, or with occasional, inconspicuous dots; floral bracts not as above, if conspicuous and pale, then not deciduous.  NOT [Petioles with glandular dots or lobes at distal end; floral bracts pale tawny, 1.2 4 mm, conspicuous during flowering, deciduous after flowering]

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Ovaries hairy.  NOT [Ovaries glabrous]

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Ovaries without the following combination of characteristics if appearing sparsely short-silky, then stipes shorter than 1.4 mm or styles longer than 0.5 mm; NOT [Ovaries sparsely short-silky; stipes long (1.4 6 mm); styles short (0 0.5 mm)]

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Ovaries long-silky, villous, tomentose or woolly; leaf blade margins entire, sinuate, serrulate, crenate or crenulate; if serrulate, then stipes usually >= 1 mm.  NOT  [Ovaries very densely short-silky; leaf blade margins closely glandular-serrulate; stipes 0.6 0.9 mm]

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Ovaries villous, tomentose or woolly; if ferruginous hairs present on ovaries and lower surfaces of largest medial and juvenile leaves, then floral bracts 2 4 mm and distinctly longer than stipes. NOT  [Ovaries long-silky; hairs on ovaries and lower surfaces of largest medial and juvenile leaves white or ferruginous; floral bracts 1 - 2 mm and similar to stipes in length.]

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Capsules 3 8 mm; leaf blades and ovaries lacking ferruginous hairs; leaf blades dull or shiny above. NOT [Capsules 7-11 mm; leaf blades and ovaries with white and ferruginous hairs; leaf blades highly glossy above]

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Catkins stout or slender, up to 65 mm long, very densely to loosely flowered; stipes 0.1 1.5 mm; petioles 3 11 mm, longer than the subtended buds. NOT [Catkins stout to globose, up to 26 mm long, very densely flowered; stipes 0 0.6 mm; petioles 0.5 4 mm, usually shorter than the subtended buds.]

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Ovaries very densely tomentose or woolly with crinkled or wavy hairs; styles 0.3 2 mm, red in life at early stages; leaf blades 3.4  - 5.4 12 times longer than wide, lower surfaces very densely tomentose or woolly, the hairs spreading, crinkled; south of the Precambrian Shield (except at Cluff Lake); NOT [Ovaries very densely villous or tomentose with wavy hairs; styles 0.4 1.4 mm, not red in life; leaf blades 2 3.2 - 4 times longer than wide, lower surfaces villous or pilose or glabrescent, the hairs wavy; north of the Precambrian Shield]

 

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Salix: Answers to key questions in Conifers & Catkin-Bearing Trees and Shrubs of Saskatchewan, Fascicle 5, Flora of Saskatchewan by Anna Leighton leading to this genus
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shrubs or trees; NOT [trees]

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buds covered by 1 scale; NOT  [buds covered by 3-10 scales]

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buds scale not resinous; NOT [bud scale usually resinous]

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catkins sessile or terminating flowering branchlets; NOT [catkins sessile]

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catkins erect, spreading, or +/- pendulous; NOT [catkins pendulous]

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floral bracts entire, erose, bifid, or irregularly toothed; NOT [floral bracts deeply cut]

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perianth reduced to an adaxial nectary (rarely also an abaxial nectary, then the 2 nectaries distinct or connate into a shallow cup); NOT [perianth reduced to a non-nectariferous, cup-shaped or shallow saucer-shaped floral disc]

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stamens 1, 2, or 3 10; NOT [stamens 6 60 (70)]

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capsules obclavate to ovoid or ellipsoid; NOT [capsules narrowly ovoid to spherical, with the floral disc persistent at base]

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capsules 2-valved; NOT [capsules 2 - 4 valved]

 

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Salicaceae: Answers to key questions in Budd's Flora  leading to this family. 
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shrubs or trees; NOT [herbs]

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flowers with only one floral ring, with sepals but not petals

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male flowers, at least, in catkins or aments; NOT [flowers not in catkins or aments]

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seeds each with a tuft of hairs; NOT [seeds without a tuft of hairs]